Download Acción comunicativa y razón sin transcendencia by Jürgen Habermas PDF

By Jürgen Habermas

El concepto de "presuposición idealizante" ocupa un lugar destacado en los angeles construcción de los angeles "teoría de los angeles acción comunicativa". En este ensayo, que constituye una importante aportación a su teoría, Habermas explica y desarrolla este concepto, reinterpretándolo, a l. a. luz de su análisis pragmático-formal, como una versión de las "ideas" kantianas una vez liberadas de su sentido transcendental. El texto ofrece una explicación genealógica de los vínculos que unen el planteamiento kantiano con cuatro presuposiciones pragmáticas inevitables en l. a. acción comunicativa: un mundo objetivo común, los angeles responsabilidad de los sujetos racionales, los angeles validez incondicional de las pretensiones de verdad y de corrección normativa, y los angeles necesaria dependencia de justificación discursiva. Habermas destaca que los angeles "inevitabilidad" de estas presuposiciones en los angeles acción comunicativa debe entenderse más en el sentido de Wittgenstein que en el de Kant, es decir, no en el sentido trascendental de las condiciones universales y necesarias de l. a. experiencia posible, sino en el sentido gramatical de un sistema de lenguaje y un mundo de l. a. vida en el que nos hemos socializado y que, en cualquier caso, "para nosotros" es insuperable. A los angeles luz de esos nexos genealógicos se hacen patentes los puntos cruciales en los que l. a. filosofía analítica ha rechazado los angeles herencia de las "ideas" de los angeles razón pura de Kant. Pero, a su vez, mediante un análisis que examina l. a. crítica de Frege al psicologismo, el principio de caridad interpretativa de Davidson, l. a. recepción crítica de Wittgenstein por parte de Dummett, y los angeles concepción del entendimiento como un intercambio discursivo de razones que propone Brandom, Habermas muestra que l. a. tradición analítica acaba llegando a unas descripciones normativas de l. a. práctica lingüística muy similares a las de su pragmática formal, de raíces confesadamente kantianas.

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Three Arguments Against the Descriptivist Picture In Naming and Necessity, Saul Kripke gives three types of argument against semantic theories that analyze the meaning of proper names, RIGID DESIGNATION AND ITS LESSONS 19 and the manner in which their reference is determined, in terms of the meaning, or denotation, of descriptions associated with those names by speakers. The first type consists of semantic arguments designed to show that, typically, the referent of a proper name n, as used by a speaker s, is not linguistically determined to be the denotation of any description, or set of descriptions, associated with n by s.

This mysterious doctrine can be motivated as follows: Suppose that the name n has a wide-scope descriptive content which is not the content of any ordinary descriptive phrase in English. In that case we will not be able to formulate any true claim of the form 'n is F' expresses the proposition that the G is F. We can say, truly, that n is F expresses a proposition, and we can correctly identify that proposition by saying that proposition is the proposition that n is F. By using the sentence n is F, we can entertain this proposition, and we can make a variety of judgments about it.

The first of these is a sentence of the form n is F. On the usual view, such a sentence is true at a time t iff n designates at t something that is in the extension of F at t. But then, since Plato is dead is true now, the name Plato must now designate something—and what else than the now nonexistent Plato? Kaplan and Salmon generalize this point to cover a variety of cases, including modal examples. 33 A second criticism is based on Kripke's original epistemic and semantic arguments against description theories.

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