Download A History of the Modern Middle East (4th Edition) by William L. Cleveland, Martin Bunton PDF

By William L. Cleveland, Martin Bunton

This complete paintings offers a penetrating research of recent heart jap background, from the Ottoman and Egyptian reforms, throughout the problem of Western imperialism, to the yankee invasion of Iraq and Iran’s new effect within the zone. After introducing the reader to the region’s background from the origins of Islam within the 7th century, A background of the trendy heart East specializes in the previous centuries of profound and sometimes dramatic switch. even if equipped round a framework of political historical past, the ebook additionally conscientiously integrates social, cultural, and financial advancements right into a unmarried, expertly crafted account. In updating this fourth version of the past due William Cleveland’s well known introductory textual content, Martin Bunton addresses fresh transformative advancements within the heart East, charting the decline within the peace clients among Israelis and Palestinians, elaborating upon the resurgence of Islam, and devoting a brand new bankruptcy to “America’s bothered second within the heart East,” which info the aftermath of the Iraq warfare and Iran’s nuclear ambitions.

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Extra info for A History of the Modern Middle East (4th Edition)

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The Quran commanded Muslims to protect “people of the Book”—that is, Jews and Christians who possessed a revealed scripture. In practice, this toleration was extended to the Zoroastrians of Iran and the Hindus of the Indian subcontinent. Forced conversions played only a small part in the Arab conquests, and for at least two centuries the majority of the inhabitants of the Islamic empire were nonMuslims. They were known as dhimmis, a term meaning followers of the religions tolerated by law. Dhimmis were allowed the freedom to practice their religion and to manage their internal affairs through their own religious officials.

The main Arabian beneficiary of this commercial network was the city of Mecca, which developed into the most important commercial center of the peninsula. By the early seventh century, Meccan merchants had accumulated sufficient capital to organize their own caravans and to provide payments to an extensive network of tribes in exchange for pledges to allow the caravans to pass in peace. In addition to its role as a commercial center, Mecca was a religious site of ˛ major significance. The city’s shrine, the Ka ba, became the center of an animistic cult that attracted worshipers throughout western Arabia.

The shorter chapters are from the Meccan years, when Muhammad concentrated on establishing the theological foundations of the faith. The central element of the Meccan period was an uncompromising monotheism. As an early Meccan revelation insisted, Say: He is God, One, God, the Everlasting Refuge, who has not begotten, and has not been begotten, and equal to Him is not anyone. qxd 10 10/14/08 8:45 AM Page 10 P A R T O N E — The Development of Islamic Civilization The Arabic word for one supreme God, Allah, refers to the monotheistic deities of Judaism and Christianity as well as Islam.

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