Download A History of Modern Iran by Ervand Abrahamian PDF

By Ervand Abrahamian

In a reappraisal of Iran's glossy background, Ervand Abrahamian lines its worrying trip around the 20th century, in the course of the discovery of oil, imperial interventions, the rule of thumb of the Pahlavis and, in 1979, revolution and the start of the Islamic Republic. within the intervening years, the rustic has skilled a sour struggle with Iraq, the transformation of society lower than the clergy and, extra lately, the growth of the nation and the fight for energy among the previous elites, the intelligentsia and the economic center classification. the writer is a compassionate expositor. whereas he adroitly negotiates the twists and turns of the country's nearby and overseas politics, on the middle of his booklet are the folk of Iran. it's to them and their resilience that this booklet is devoted, as Iran emerges at first of the twenty-first century as the most strong states within the center East.

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Sitting on the aircraft, from left to right, are Capts John Havner, Bart Haynes and Gossen. com The six jets of VMA-231 ‘Det A’ had been at sea with 24th MEU-SOC/ HMM-263 aboard USS Nassau (LHA-4) for five months prior to their commitment to OIF I. The AV-8B+ closest to the camera in this photograph, BuNo 165391, had the dubious distinction of being the only Harrier II to be lost during OIF I when it crashed while approaching Nassau during a night recovery on 1 April 2003. The pilot successfully ejected and BuNo 165391 remained afloat long enough for it to be recovered (US Navy) I n mid January 2003, Harrier II squadron VMA-542 embarked in Bataan and sailed with the vessel from Norfolk on the 20th of that month.

Behind the formation can be seen the MAG-11/13 TACAIR ramp. Note that all of the aircraft are carrying live ordnance (Capt Ed Bahret) Kirkuk, a town in the north, fell to Kurdish fighters assisted by Special Forces that same day (11 April), and Mosul was occupied by Coalition troops too. Marine Task Force Tripoli, with heavy air support, rushed 90 miles north to Saddam Hussein’s hometown of Tikrit – three days later it fell to US troops. By 15 April OIF I was over, with most of Iraq under Coalition control.

This soon became Operation Southern Force, where the goal was to put a massive number of jets into the air every day over Iraqi positions in the No-Fly Zone so that the enemy would not know when OIF had properly started. I flew my first Southern Force mission on 9 March, and VMA-542 remained committed to this operation for about two weeks in total. ‘We put these sorties to good use, as we were given specific targets – where Iraqi ground forces and other defences were thought to be located – to reconnoitre with our Litening II pods.

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