By Horace W. Davenport
This e-book examines the heritage of experimental learn in gastric secretion and digestion. the writer identifies the clinical questions that experience occupied researchers and discusses the experiments that experience ended in their strategies. by way of setting apart features of experimental examine and tracing their evolution through the years, the e-book offers gastric physiologists and gastroenterologists with an excellent knowing of the highbrow historical past in their box.
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Extra info for A History of Gastric Secretion and Digestion: Experimental Studies to 1975
0 0 0 0 0 0 .. ·· 0 SECRETIONS FROM PYLORJC ANiRUM. 0 . :. : 0 •• II HP04 •• BLOOD PLASMA. Figure 1-7. A "Gamblegram" showing the relationship between the electrolyte composition of cats' gastric juice and blood plasma. (From Gamble JA, Mclver MA. The acid-base composition of gastric secretions. ) SECRETION OF HYDROCHLORIC ACID / 19 isotonic with blood, and innumerable observations have demonstrated that to be the case. For example, Nathan Lifson, working with Maurice Visscher and a young surgeon at the University ofMinnesota, found that of 118 samples obtained from 15 dogs, I 06 were within ± 8 müsm of isotonicity; 6 were more hypertonic; and 6 were more hypotonic.
61 Nathan Lifson, Richard Varco, and Maurice Visscher, as weil as Franklin Hollander, found a systematic relation between the concentration ofhydrogen ions in gastric juice and the juice's osmotic pressure. An example is given by the data from Dog N in Figure 1-8. At low rates of secretion, the osmotic pressure fell and then rose to equal that of plasma. Both Lifson and Hollauder explained this on the basis of the two-component theory. The two components are isotonic, they said; one, containing bicarbonate, is secreted at a low but constant rate; the other, containing acid, is secreted at a variable rate.
68 JLEQ cm- 2 hr- 1, and S __. 43 in the same units. Thus, chloridewas actively secreted. When Hogben set the potential difference at 56 m V and in the direction opposing active secretion, the fluxes became symmetrical. Hogben concluded that hydrogen ions and chloride ions are the only ones actively transported by the frog gastric mucosa, for he found the sum ofthe acid flux and the short-circuit current to be equal to the difference between the two unidirectional fluxes measured by 36Cl- moving in one direction and 38Cl- moving in the other.